How Binge Eating Disorder Is Diagnosed (2022)

Binge eating disorder—sometimes referred to as compulsive overeating—is an eating disorder that involves a person eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, and feeling out of control when it comes to food and eating.

Binge eating disorder is considered the most common eating and feeding disorder in the United States, affecting about 3% of Americans—three times more common than anorexia and bulimia combined.

Binge eating disorder is diagnosed primarily through a discussion and evaluation of symptoms, but can involve physical examinations and diagnostic testing.

This article covers how binge eating disorder is diagnosed.

Professional Screenings

The process for determining if a person has binge eating disorder usually begins with a primary healthcare provider. The provider will use a number of tools to make a diagnosis and determine next steps.

DSM-5 Criteria

Binge eating disorder began to be recognized as a unique disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).

How Binge Eating Disorder Is Diagnosed (1)

To be diagnosed with binge eating disorder, a person must meet the following criteria:

1 . Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following:

  • Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g., within any two-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat in a similar period of time under similar circumstances
  • The sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g., a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating)

2 . Binge-eating episodes are associated with three (or more) of the following:

  • Eating much more rapidly than normal
  • Eating until feeling uncomfortably full
  • Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry
  • Eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating
  • Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or very guilty after overeating

3 . Marked distress regarding binge eating is present.

4 . The binge eating occurs, on average, at least one day a week for three months.

5 . The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (e.g., purging, fasting, excessive exercise) and does not occur exclusively during the course of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

How Is the Severity of Binge Eating Disorder Determined?

Severity is categorized as:

  • Mild: 1 to 3 episodes per week
  • Moderate: 4 to 7 episodes per week
  • Severe: 8 to 13 episodes per week
  • Extreme: 14 or more episodes per week
(Video) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) | Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

In plainer terms, this means a person with binge eating disorder:

  • Eats a large amount of food in a short amount of time, at least once a week for three months
  • Feels out of control of their eating during the episodes
  • Feels distressed about their binge-eating behavior
  • Experiences at least three of the following: Eating very quickly; eating to the point of being uncomfortable; eating a lot of food while not hungry; embarrassment about the amount they are eating; feeling guilty or negatively about themselves after overeating
  • Doesn’t do things to compensate for overeating such as purging or fasting, or only binge-eat as part of anorexia or bulimia

Physical Examination

While binge eating disorder is primarily diagnosed by a person’s descriptions of their symptoms, there are a number of reasons a healthcare provider may do a physical examination.

People with binge eating disorder are not necessarily obese, and people who are obese do not necessarily have binge eating disorder. About half of people with binge eating disorder are considered obese.

It is impossible to determine if someone has binge eating disorder simply from their body shape, and the health complications from binge eating are not always obvious at a glance.

Health complications caused by binge eating disorder a healthcare provider might look for include:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Certain cancers
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders

A physical health exam may also involve:

  • Getting a medical history, including mental health
  • Discussing family medical history, including eating disorders, mental health disorders, or substance use disorders
  • Reviewing symptoms or concerns
  • Noting current medications being taken
  • Calculating height and weight
  • Checking vital signs (such as heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature)
  • Examining skin and nails
  • Listening to the heart and lungs
  • Feeling the abdomen
  • Asking about diet and eating habits, as well as compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting, over-exercising, and fasting
  • Discussing substance use

If necessary, a primary healthcare provider may give a referral to a mental health professional for further screening and/or treatment.

What’s the Difference Between Overeating and Binge Eating?

While it is normal to occasionally eat more food than is considered typical, such as at a buffet dinner or a special occasion, people with binge eating disorder tend to have episodes of overeating more often than other people.

They also feel that they are not in control of their eating, versus someone who is overeating simply because they are enjoying their meal.

Labs and Tests

There are no tests used specifically for diagnosing binge eating disorder. If a healthcare provider orders lab work or testing, it is usually for the purpose of checking the person’s general health or for conditions that may have developed from or been made worse by binge eating disorder.

These tests might include:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • X-rays
  • Ultrasound
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Men and Binge Eating

While 40% of people with binge eating disorder are male, men and boys are often left out of the discussion when it comes to eating disorders.

A 2019 study highlighted the need for more research into how eating disorders present in men, and how they can be better diagnosed and treated by healthcare providers.

(Video) Diagnosis of Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge Eating and Food Addiction | DSM 5 TR

Self/At-Home Testing

While not a substitute for a professional assessment, there are at-home screening tools that can help determine if binge eating disorder is likely and if an appointment with a healthcare provider should be made to discuss further.

PsyCom has an online questionnaire that involves answering questions with a rating on a scale from “never” to “very often.” Once the test is completed, it is submitted with one click for an instant result calculation.

Mind Diagnostics offers a similar online test.

The National Eating Disorders Association has a more indepth online questionnaire used to determine if someone has or is at risk for an eating disorder.

If any of these tools indicate you may be experiencing binge eating disorder, book an appointment to discuss your symptoms with a healthcare provider.

Getting Help

If you or a loved one is coping with an eating disorder, contact theNational Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) Helplinefor support at1-800-931-2237.

For more mental health resources, see ourNational Helpline Database.

Summary

Binge eating disorder is diagnosed primarily through a discussion and evaluation of symptoms, but can involve physical examinations and diagnostic testing.

A Word From Verywell

While binge eating disorder is the most common eating and feeding disorder in the United States, it is still not well understood.

Criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder may seem unclear to you. If your eating behavior and your feelings surrounding food and eating are negatively impacting you, see your healthcare provider, even if you don’t appear to meet the formal criteria for binge eating disorder.

Binge eating disorder can be managed, and getting a diagnosis is the first step.

4 Sources

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry. 2007;61(3):348-358. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.040

  2. Berkman ND, Brownley KA, Peat CM, et al. Table 1, DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for binge-eating disorder.

  3. Cleveland Clinic. Binge eating disorder.

  4. Sangha S, Oliffe JL, Kelly MT, McCuaig F. Eating disorders in males: how primary care providers can improve recognition, diagnosis, and treatment.Am J Mens Health. 2019;13(3). doi:10.11772F1557988319857424

How Binge Eating Disorder Is Diagnosed (2)

By Heather Jones
Heather M. Jones is a freelance writer with a strong focus on health, parenting, disability,and feminism.

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(Video) How to Support Your Loved One Diagnosed with Binge Eating Disorder
(Video) Binge Eating Disorder: 3 Common Myths
(Video) Binge Eating Disorder (BED): Diagnosis and Treatment Overview

FAQs

How can you tell if someone is binge eating? ›

Symptoms
  1. Eating unusually large amounts of food in a specific amount of time, such as over a two-hour period.
  2. Feeling that your eating behavior is out of control.
  3. Eating even when you're full or not hungry.
  4. Eating rapidly during binge episodes.
  5. Eating until you're uncomfortably full.
  6. Frequently eating alone or in secret.
5 May 2018

How do doctors know you have an eating disorder? ›

Eating disorders are diagnosed based on signs, symptoms and eating habits. If your doctor suspects you have an eating disorder, he or she will likely perform an exam and request tests to help pinpoint a diagnosis. You may see both your primary care provider and a mental health professional for a diagnosis.

Does disordered eating have to be diagnosed? ›

Someone with an eating disorder may exhibit disordered eating behaviors, but not all people with disordered eating will be diagnosed with an eating disorder.

How often do you have to binge for it to be a disorder? ›

You may have binge eating disorder if, for at least once a week over the past three months, you have binged. Binge eating disorder means you have at least three of these symptoms while binging: Eating faster than normal. Eating until uncomfortably full.

What causes binge behavior? ›

One of the most common reasons for binge eating is an attempt to manage unpleasant emotions such as stress, depression, loneliness, fear, and anxiety. When you have a bad day, it can seem like food is your only friend.

Which activity is an example of binging? ›

An example of binge eating would be eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time and feeling as if you were out of control. In general, binge eaters tend to eat more often than those who experience the occasional bout of overeating.

Is eating too much a mental disorder? ›

Binge eating disorder is a serious mental illness. People with binge eating disorder regularly (at least once a week) eat large quantities of food, rapidly, in a short period of time. They feel out of control and unable to stop themselves from eating. This is often linked with high levels of distress.

Which of the following symptoms would indicate that a patient has binge eating disorder? ›

Symptoms of binge-eating disorder include:

Eating unusually large amounts of food in a short amount of time, for example, within two hours. Eating rapidly during binge episodes. Eating even when full or not hungry. Eating until uncomfortably full.

Can bloodwork tell if you have an eating disorder? ›

Although there is no one laboratory test to screen for eating disorders, a healthcare provider can use a variety of physical and psychological evaluations as well as lab tests to determine a diagnosis.

Can a therapist diagnose an ED? ›

Eating disorders can be diagnosed by a number of professionals. This includes medical physicians or mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, dietitians, or social workers.

Who should I contact if I have an eating disorder? ›

A team approach is often best. Those who may be involved in treatment include medical doctors, mental health professionals, and nutritionists. The participation and support of family members also makes a big difference in the success of eating disorder treatment.

What is it called when you don't like eating? ›

Anorexia is a general loss of appetite or a loss of interest in food. When some people hear the word “anorexia,” they think of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

What are potential risk factors that may lead to eating disorders? ›

Causes and Risk Factors of Eating Disorders
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Difficulty expressing emotions.
  • Feelings of inadequacy and helplessness.
  • Difficult personal relationships.
  • History of physical or sexual abuse.
  • History of bullying, particularly due to weight or physical appearance.

Which factor increases the risk of compulsive overeating? ›

Low self-esteem and having a negative body image contribute to the risks of compulsive eating. This is a vicious cycle, as weight gain and feelings of loss of control serve to further lower self-esteem and worsen already negative feelings about one's body or appearance.

Which gender is more likely to have an eating disorder? ›

Eating disorders are much more common among women than men. Now, a new study may have uncovered a neurological explanation for this disparity. Researchers find that women are more likely than men to experience brain activity relating to negative body perception.

Does binge eating one day cause weight gain? ›

It can be useful to remember that, just as one day of dieting will not cause a person to lose weight, a day of binge eating will not cause weight gain. Although an episode of overeating can happen to anyone occasionally, some people have a binge eating disorder, which usually requires professional attention.

What do you say to a binge eater? ›

Binge eating disorder isn't just about food.
...
But do say:
  • “I care about you.”
  • “I want you to be happy and healthy.”
  • “I'm here for you when you need me.”
  • “I'm going to support you through this.”
  • “I won't share what you tell me with anyone else without your permission.”
  • “I won't judge you.”
20 Oct 2021

How much food is considered a binge? ›

Most binges involve the consumption of more than 1,000 calories, with a quarter of binges exceeding 2,000 calories.

Is binging genetic? ›

Using gene mapping and gene validation, researchers were able to identify cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) as a major genetic risk factor for binge eating.

What binging does to your brain? ›

Our brain stimulation is lowered (depressed) such as in other forms of depression." In a study done by the University of Toledo, 142 out of 408 participants identified themselves as binge-watchers. This group reported higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression than those who were not binge-watchers.

How do you stop binge behavior? ›

What can I do to stop bingeing?
  1. THINK model. Mantell suggests trying the THINK model when a binge feels imminent. ...
  2. Therapy. ...
  3. Take a walk.
  4. Meditate.
  5. Try yoga.
  6. Stick to a schedule.
  7. Find a support group. ...
  8. Learn more about bingeing.

What happens when you binge eat? ›

Following a bingeing episode, individuals may feel uncomfortably full and/or sick to their stomach. They may experience bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea. Binge eating overloads a person's system, which may result in low energy, sleepiness, and sluggishness.

Why do I keep wanting to binge eat? ›

People binge eat due to depression, genetics, anxiety, low self-esteem and dieting. Planning meals, portioning food and keeping a food diary can help you overcome binge eating. Teletherapy and in-person support groups are great solutions for helping people with a binge eating disorder.

What should I do after a binge? ›

Drink lots of water – at least two liters or more – the next day to rehydrate your body after consuming high-salt and high-sugar foods as well as alcohol,” Vavrek says. Keeping your body well-hydrated is always a good practice, especially after a binge, because water aids in digestion and reduces bloating.

How do you feel after binging? ›

Immediately after a binge, feelings of shame, self-hatred, anxiety, and depression are common. Physical discomfort and gastrointestinal distress frequently occur due to the high volume of food ingested. The person may experience lethargy and fatigue.

How do I stop binge eating when stressed? ›

To help stop emotional eating, try these tips:
  1. Keep a food diary. Write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you're feeling when you eat and how hungry you are. ...
  2. Tame your stress. ...
  3. Have a hunger reality check. ...
  4. Get support. ...
  5. Fight boredom. ...
  6. Take away temptation. ...
  7. Don't deprive yourself. ...
  8. Snack healthy.

What is food Neophobia? ›

Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered.

Which adolescent is most likely to develop an eating disorder? ›

Eating disorders can occur in individuals of any age from children to older adults. However, studies show a peak in the occurrence of eating disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Therefore, teenage girls and young women have the highest risk factor for developing eating disorders based on age.

Can depression cause you to overeat? ›

When you're struggling with depression, your eating habits often suffer. Some people overeat and gain weight, turning to food to lift their mood. Others find they're too exhausted to prepare balanced meals or that they've lost their appetite.

What eating disorder is caused by low sodium levels? ›

The most frequent electrolyte imbalances seen in anorexia are hyponatremia (a low concentration of sodium ions in the bloodstream) and hypokalemia (a low concentration of potassium ions).

What bloodwork shows anorexia? ›

Lab tests.

These may include a complete blood count (CBC) and more-specialized blood tests to check electrolytes and protein as well as functioning of your liver, kidney and thyroid. A urinalysis also may be done.

How does bulimia show up in blood tests? ›

There aren't any laboratory tests to specifically diagnose bulimia. Your healthcare provider may order tests to see how bulimia has affected your health.

What is a food therapist called? ›

Registered Dietitians: These professionals specialize in nutrition rehabilitation and work with individuals to create and maintain a balanced meal plan. A Registered Dietitian would also oversee Medical Nutrition Therapy for men and women recovering from eating disorders.

What is atypical anorexia nervosa? ›

It's called atypical anorexia nervosa. The patient, usually a young woman, has all the symptoms of anorexia except that she's not underweight. The atypical anorexia patient is usually someone who has historically been overweight. Obsessed with getting thinner, she has been dieting and exercising excessively.

What is the most common reason for hospitalization in people with anorexia? ›

The main reason for inpatient hospitalization is medical instability. 2 As a result, eating disorder patients needing inpatient hospitalization are often admitted to specialized units rather than general psychiatric units where patients with other mental disorders are usually treated.

At what weight do you get hospitalized for anorexia? ›

One Place for Treatment

Admission criteria require that patients be less than 70 percent of their ideal body weight, or have a body mass index (BMI) below 15. In a woman who is 5 feet 4 inches tall, that's about 85 pounds.

Why do anorexics not have a period? ›

The low body weight present in individuals with anorexia is typically the cause of menstrual cycle disruptions. Low body weight reduces the body's fat stores, which play a necessary role in the production of reproductive hormones.

What should you not say to someone with Ed? ›

From my personal experience, here are some things that you shouldn't say to someone with an Eating Disorder (ED):
  • Don't tell someone they are too fat to have an ED. ...
  • Don't talk about weight or comment on the person's appearance. ...
  • Don't tell someone that they don't look sick. ...
  • Don't comment on the person's food.

What are the 7 examples of disordered eating patterns? ›

Read more about these different types of eating disorders, and how to recognize the symptoms.
  • Anorexia. ...
  • Bulimia. ...
  • Binge eating disorder. ...
  • Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) ...
  • Pica. ...
  • Other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED) ...
  • Orthorexia.
6 Sept 2021

What is food trauma? ›

Food trauma will be both defined and explored as seen in intensive treatment settings from both psychological and nutritional backgrounds. Trauma with foods/feeding, physical traumas involving food, trauma associations with food, and food itself as trauma will all be discussed.

What is it called when you starve yourself then binge eat? ›

Bulimia and your actions

If you experience bulimia, you might: eat lots of food in one go (binge) go through daily cycles of eating, feeling guilty, purging, feeling hungry and eating again. binge on foods that you think are bad for you. starve yourself in between binges.

Which of the following behaviors is typical of a binge eater? ›

Eating rapidly during binge episodes. Eating until you're uncomfortably full. Frequently eating alone or in secret. Feeling depressed, disgusted, ashamed, guilty or upset about your eating.

Does my daughter have an eating disorder? ›

Some signs and symptoms of disordered eating include: Any behavior that suggests that weight loss or dieting is becoming a main concern. Obsession or preoccupation with weight, food, or calories. Skipping meals or only eating small amounts.

What are the psychological factors of eating? ›

Many people use food as a coping mechanism to deal with such feelings as stress, boredom or anxiety, or even to prolong feelings of joy. While this may help in the short term, eating to soothe and ease your feelings often leads to regret and guilt, and can even increase the negative feelings.

Is overeating a learned behavior? ›

To summarize, food cue reactivity has been shown to be related to overeating and weight gain and can partly be learned through Pavlovian learning principles.

Does fasting lead to binging? ›

These findings imply that fasting (complete abstinence from caloric intake for 24 hours or more for weight control purposes), rather than more moderate dietary restriction, may increase risk for binge eating and bulimic pathology.

Which person is most likely to develop anorexia nervosa? ›

Anorexia is more common among girls and women than boys and men. Anorexia is also more common among girls and younger women than older women. On average, girls develop anorexia at 16 or 17. Teen girls between 13 and 19 and young women in their early 20s are most at risk.

How do I get a diagnosis for bed? ›

You can be diagnosed with BED if you: Binge regularly -- on average, at least once a week for at least three months. Eat a large quantity of food (more than others would eat) in a short amount of time, such as two hours, while feeling like you can't stop or control how much you're eating. Eat when you're not hungry.

Can I get prescribed Vyvanse for binge eating? ›

Vyvanse is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients 6 years and above, and for the treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (B.E.D.) in adults. Vyvanse is not for use in children under 6 years of age with ADHD.

What counts as an eating disorder? ›

Types of eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, other specified feeding and eating disorder, pica and rumination disorder.

Is eating too much a mental disorder? ›

Binge eating disorder is a serious mental illness. People with binge eating disorder regularly (at least once a week) eat large quantities of food, rapidly, in a short period of time. They feel out of control and unable to stop themselves from eating. This is often linked with high levels of distress.

Which activity is an example of binging? ›

An example of binge eating would be eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time and feeling as if you were out of control. In general, binge eaters tend to eat more often than those who experience the occasional bout of overeating.

What do you say to a binge eater? ›

Binge eating disorder isn't just about food.
...
But do say:
  • “I care about you.”
  • “I want you to be happy and healthy.”
  • “I'm here for you when you need me.”
  • “I'm going to support you through this.”
  • “I won't share what you tell me with anyone else without your permission.”
  • “I won't judge you.”
20 Oct 2021

What happens if you take Vyvanse and you don't have ADHD? ›

Many high school and college students begin to abuse Vyvanse and other stimulants for this reason. However, research has shown that when students who do not have ADHD take Vyvanse and other stimulants, they actually have a lower GPA 5.

What is the best ADHD medication for weight loss? ›

Sometimes the medicines most often used to treat ADHD can cause weight loss. Stimulant drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (Adderall) make you less hungry and make your body burn calories faster than usual. Some of them are even used to help people lose weight or treat binge eating.

How much topiramate do you need to take to lose weight? ›

For weight loss: Adults and children 12 years of age and older—At first, one tablet of 3.75 milligrams (mg) of phentermine and 23 mg of topiramate once a day for 14 days. After 14 days, your doctor may increase your dose to 7.5 mg of phentermine and 46 mg of topiramate once a day.

What are the 7 examples of disordered eating patterns? ›

Read more about these different types of eating disorders, and how to recognize the symptoms.
  • Anorexia. ...
  • Bulimia. ...
  • Binge eating disorder. ...
  • Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) ...
  • Pica. ...
  • Other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED) ...
  • Orthorexia.
6 Sept 2021

What are five signs that someone may have an eating disorder? ›

7 Eating Disorder Warning Signs
  • Alterations in Weight. ...
  • Preoccupation With Body Image. ...
  • Disruptions in Eating Patterns. ...
  • Preoccupation With Nutritional Content. ...
  • Changes in Exercise Patterns. ...
  • Mood Fluctuations. ...
  • Use of Laxatives, Diuretics, or Diet Pills.

What happens when you binge eat? ›

Following a bingeing episode, individuals may feel uncomfortably full and/or sick to their stomach. They may experience bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea. Binge eating overloads a person's system, which may result in low energy, sleepiness, and sluggishness.

How do I stop binge eating when stressed? ›

To help stop emotional eating, try these tips:
  1. Keep a food diary. Write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you're feeling when you eat and how hungry you are. ...
  2. Tame your stress. ...
  3. Have a hunger reality check. ...
  4. Get support. ...
  5. Fight boredom. ...
  6. Take away temptation. ...
  7. Don't deprive yourself. ...
  8. Snack healthy.

Is overeating a symptom of depression? ›

Both conditions have the ability to cause the other: If overeating leads to weight gain and an inability to control binge eating, depression may follow. Depression itself may also trigger overeating as a coping mechanism.

Videos

1. Compulsive Overeating or Binge eating disorder, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.
(Medical Centric)
2. Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa, Binge Eating, Bulimia: Symptoms, Risks, Diagnosis, Treatments
(Rehealthify)
3. Binge Eating Disorder: Know the Facts
(Psych Hub)
4. A First-Person Account of Binge Eating Disorder | WebMD
(WebMD)
5. Binge Eating: Signs & Treatment Options From An Eating Disorder Expert | Stanford
(Stanford Center for Health Education)
6. Binge Eating Disorder (BED): Symptoms, Common Triggers, & Treatment | Mass General Brigham
(Mass General Brigham)

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